On January 25, 2013, the D.C. Circuit held in Noel Canning v. NLRB (pdf) that President Obama’s three recess appointments last year to the NLRB are unconstitutional. The decision casts a shadow over every action taken by the NLRB since those appointments were made on January 4, 2012. Moreover, because Richard Cordray received a recess appointment to head the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) on the same day, the DC Circuit’s decision provides grounds for challenging certain CFPB actions. Please see our report on the DC Circuit’s decision and the implications for challenges by companies to agency actions.